Gender in Catholic Theology

In recent months, many Catholic and other universities have hosted discussions on “gender expression” and “the gender binary.”  These are not obscure institutions, but big name universities like Notre Dame, Villanova, and the University of San Diego.  The assumption behind such discussions is that “gender” is a fluid thing, capable of many different forms and even allowing a person to shift from one form to another.  Since the whole concept of “fluid gender” is new, even faithful Catholics may feel at a loss for a response.  What does a Catholic believe about the importance of masculinity and femininity?  How do we speak to a secular world that has lost its bearings on gender?

The Catholic Church bases her view of masculinity and femininity on Scripture, which places man and woman at the center of every stage of Salvation History.  Let me take you on a brief tour of this story, beginning at the very beginning.  After that I’ll look at why the culture around us makes it hard to understand Scripture’s teaching, and I’ll offer a few thoughts about speaking to a secular world.  But first, a look at Salvation History.


In the story of creation, the human body makes invisible things visible.  When God created the first man, he said, “It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him a helper fit for him.” (Gen 2:18)  The Creator knows that he made human beings to live with other human beings; as the Catechism puts it, we were created to be a “communion of persons” (CCC 372).  But as Genesis tells it, this “communion of persons” was written directly into our bodies through masculinity and femininity.  The woman was made from the man as a “helper fit for him,” and when the man sees her he rejoices, “This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh!” (Gen 2:23)  The male and the female are “fit” for one another.  Their complementary bodies make outwardly visible what is true of their inmost being.

Together, the man and the woman are commanded, “Be fruitful and multiply, fill the earth and subdue it….” (Gen 1:28)  Just as their masculine and feminine bodies show that they are meant for one another, their bodies also show that they are meant to serve others, their children first and eventually the world-wide society founded on their procreative love.  The human spirit’s calling to community is made visible through the gendered body.

But this is only the beginning.  Ultimately, we have a calling to community because we are made in the image of the Trinity, the communion in unity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Genesis may even hint at this when it says “male and female he created them; in the image of God he created them.”  What the human body makes visible is ultimately divine!  It is a masterwork of God’s art.


Masculinity and femininity become even more important after the fall of our first parents.  Already in the Old Testament, the prophets speak of God as Israel’s husband and of the chosen people as his bride:  “I will betroth you to me forever; I will betroth you to me in righteousness and justice, in steadfast love, and in mercy.  I will betroth you to me in faithfulness; and you shall know the LORD.” (Hos 2:19-20)  In the New Testament this “marriage” of God and man takes on a deeper meaning because “the Word became flesh” (John 1:14), bringing God and humanity into a literal one-flesh union.  In Genesis the male and female bodies made the human person outwardly visible, but in the Gospels the body of Jesus makes outwardly visible the very person of God!

For Catholics, the Incarnation fills the human body with meaning.  We feel the significance of our union with God’s own body every time we approach the Eucharist, about which Jesus said, “This is my body, which is given up for you.” (Luke 22:19)  This body of Christ, crucified at Calvary and glorified in heaven, is God’s greatest work of art.  This body is his definitive self-portrait!  And the Incarnation also brings us Mary, the Mother of God, the most exalted human person in all the universe, who received her high calling precisely as a woman.

Life in Christ

After Christ’s ascension into heaven, his Incarnation continues to give meaning to our bodies.  Christ’s mystical marriage to the Church means that our bodies are his members:  speaking to Christians caught in fornication, St. Paul asks, “Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ?  Shall I therefore take the members of Christ and make them members of a prostitute?” (1Cor 6:15)  He goes on to challenge them, “Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, which you have from God?” (1Cor 6:19)  It is a challenge to live up to the holiness of the Christian body!

By the same token, a Christian’s bodily actions are powerful.  Because their bodies are members of Christ and temples of the Spirit, the bodily union in marriage of Christians is even a sacrament, a sign and source of supernatural grace.  And St. Paul appeals to the Romans to “present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship.” (Rom 12:1)


The story of Salvation History ends with a strong emphasis on the human body when all the dead rise for judgment.  The resurrection demonstrates once and for all the eternal significance of the body in God’s plan, because without saving the body God’s victory would be incomplete.  The book of Revelation describes that last day as the “marriage of the Lamb,” in which Christ finally and forever takes his “bride,” the Church (Rev 19:7).

This way of describing the end unlocks a puzzle.  Although men and women will rise in their masculine and feminine bodies, Jesus tells us that they no longer “marry or are given in marriage” (Luke 20:35).  Does this imply that masculinity and femininity are no longer important?  No, it shows that the natural meaning of the human body will be entirely fulfilled when we see God “face to face” (1Cor 13:2) in a “marriage” to our maker.  The fact that we were made for communion not only means that we are in the image of the Trinitarian communion, but ultimately it means that we were made for communion with the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Even now, we see that ultimate meaning of the human body in those who have chosen virginity “for the kingdom of heaven.” (Matt 19:12)

A Secular World View

So we see that the story of our salvation is not just about the salvation of souls:  it is about the human body too, from beginning to end!  But even though the Catholic faith has a lot to say about the human body, speaking to a secular world is not as easy as quoting a lot of Scripture.  Bad philosophy has permeated our culture, creating a “road block” that prevents even good-willed people from understanding what the Church has to offer.  It has to do with how the modern world views the human body.

According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, “The unity of soul and body is so profound that one has to consider the soul to be the ‘form’ of the body: . . . spirit and matter, in man, are not two natures united, but rather their union forms a single nature.” (CCC 365)  Americans generally understand that human beings are free and have rights just by being humans; we can’t just do whatever we want to a human being.  The Catholic Church holds that human bodies are also human, and so we can’t just do whatever we want to human bodies.

But the modern age has come to see the world in mechanical terms.  We tend to imagine that there is no more “nature” in the human body than there is “nature” in an automobile.  People rebel at the idea that “mere” biology can decide how we should live, because they do not see the biological realm as inherently meaningful.  Why should having a female body involve a calling to motherhood?  Why should having a male body involve a responsibility to family?

Consequently, our culture sees the human body not so much as God’s masterwork of art than as a blank canvas on which to paint:  What shall I make of my body?  Shall I make it male, or female, or something else?  Shall I make my body fertile or sterile?  What shall I do?  And so for a long time now our culture has promoted birth control as a way of separating the body from a vocation.  Abortion has been pushed as a woman’s control over her body.  All of this springs from the same root:  people speak of “expressing themselves” through their bodies because they have stopped believing that the body already naturally does express them.  In the end, we have “fluid gender” and “gender expression”.

As we saw above, the natural meaning of the body is that the human person was made for community.  But when our culture abandoned the idea of any “nature” of the body, it also abandoned the idea that society is “natural”.  Individuals are seen as absolute, autonomous, while society is something artificial we make for the sake of convenience.  Even the family, the most obviously natural society, goes out the window when the natural meaning of the body is lost.  The result is a radically individualistic idea of human rights in which each person has a “right” to decide his or her or its own bodily and spiritual meaning even if this decision is bad for society as a whole—and in fact bad for the individual in rebellion against human personhood.

Speaking to a Secular World

If we are going to speak to the secular world, then we need to remove the philosophical and emotional road blocks as well as we can.  There is no quick and easy way to fix a broken worldview, but three rules of thumb will prove useful.

First, stay positive.  Before we get to all the “Thou shalt not” business, we need to say again and again, in as many ways as we can, that the human body is a wonderful thing deserving of respect.  We need to stress the basic truth that the human body is not just mechanical:  it means something.  It has a nature that comes before anything we think about it.  This nature is not a result of the interplay of subatomic particles, but actually comes even before the subatomic particles and uses them to make itself visible.

Second, don’t judge.  Our nature is a fallen one, wounded as a result of sin.  We all experience tendencies and desires that contradict the real meaning of our bodies, no matter what our “orientation” or state in life.  Often a young person inherits a broken situation from parents or other mentors, and confusion follows.  Sometimes that confusion leads to “straight” sexual deviancy and sometimes it leads to “gay” or “other” sexual deviancy, but the point is that gender confusion is part of that general brokenness of sexuality we all experience.

Lastly, emphasize courage.  The holiness Christ brought to the body through his own body is for everyone, no matter what tendencies or desires they experience, but it takes courage and conviction to live up to our high calling.  Sexual morality is not about following a list of rules but about the arduous path to becoming what we are.  Pretending it’s easy for “good” people helps no one.  If we focus on the true nature of chastity not as staying in a box but as winning a battle, I think we will see a response from that tiny spark of our country’s heritage that still hungers for greatness.

Share Button

Author: Dr. Holmes

Dr. Jeremy Holmes teaches Theology at Wyoming Catholic College. He lives in Wyoming with his wife, Jacinta, and their eight children.

Notify of

Inline Feedbacks
View all comments